Drones: discover the technology

unmanned aerial vehicles today conquer the technological market and the most rewarding personal experiences of the great adventure of living.

At the time the first development of the drone, which means drone in English, was used for military purposes. Since the First World War in 1916 was built in the United Kingdom in the Arial Target, controlled by radio from the ground in defense against the Zeppelins; in 1917 the drone precursor would really start: Kettering Bug - also known as Aerial Torpedo - by Charles F. Kettering. However, until the end of the last century, UAVs-Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles-did not begin to carry out combat operations: During the Gulf War, Bosnia and its immense utility in the electronic war to establish communications with less risk of being intercepted.

Currently the technology, which was once mainly armament, extends its use towards commercial, personal, environmental and humanitarian purposes: Support in the search for missing persons, fight against fires, playing an important role in scientific, geological research and archaeological; They in turn transport and make large footage closer to events of global interest.

Today what was born to separate people from conflicts, brings us closer to a community of users who want to share life in its natural course and in its most immediate expression to invite us to dream and enjoy everything that our eyes do not reaches to see. These gadgets designed for war, today inspire society to discover the world and themselves.

Technology teaches us once again to live by finding and savoring the beauty of the moment as it was embodied by the great painters of the schools of romantic landscape painting.

Mavic Pro: DJI.

Small but powerful drone in a compact size with the most sophisticated aerial cameras on the market.
Live the experience with unoccupied hands to give yourself to the adventure while Mavic Pro takes the best pictures or film of who you decide. With faculties that respond to immediacy, he manages to capture everything in a simple way thanks to his innovative technology.

Its transmission range is 7 km, thanks to five visual sensors, GPS and GLONASS, two ultrasonic telemetric sensors and a 4K camera supported by a stabilized by three axes.
It has two 1920 x 108 screens and 1080p video transmission.

Equipped with Flight Autonomy that gives this model coordination to avoid any obstacle.

27 minutes of flight at 65km / h.

Phantom 4 Pro: Dji.

Technology for the most developed aerial image, composed of six cameras with optimal resolution and with the great addition of a sensor network.

It comes equipped with a 20-megapixel 1-inch sensor that allows the recording of images in burst and filming at breakneck speed, at 72km / h.

The aircraft can be piloted in two ways: Frees only follows routes if ordered, looking in any possible direction; or forward, in which it is continuously being monitored with an eye on the direction of the journey.

It has the same Flight Autonomy system with double rear view sensors.

Flight time 30 minutes, has an anti-collision system in five directions.

X-Star: Autel Robotics.

Designed to fly over unseen areas and record them with the best HD resolution.

It has an intelligent flight control system, dual GPS and GLONASS satellite navigation with a particular Starpoint positioning system. In which the low altitudes and interiors of more difficult access do not prevent that it continues to be a revolution of the filming, in a safe and stable way.
Its LCD integrated to the controller gives the most critical specifics about the drone's path.
The exclusive X-Star SecureFly technology allows the drone to return home soon.

The camera is 4K (Ultra HD) with fixed images of 12MP, which is supported by three axes.
The HD Live View filming has 720p streaming almost 2 km away; as well as the autonomous flight mode that follow the objective through the Starlink application for operating systems: Android and iOS.

BEBOP 2: Parrot.

The unbeatable experience of this drone of 500 gr offers to extend our look to the horizon as if you were piloting a plane up to 2 km.

This feeling of visual freedom is thanks to the pack that Parrot gives us with BEBOP2; along with the Skycontroller 2 and the Parrot Cockpitglasses for a total immersion into the extraordinary.
With an autonomy of 25 minutes it is designed to fly indoors as well as outdoors.

Highly connected has a wifimejorada and protected connection which allows you to send live videos to any of our smart devices.

Among the facilities that it offers with its multiple handling options, you can pilot it with an exact precision and receive information in real time.

Your configuration option follow can pick up the big moments thanks to a powerful technology equipped with visual recognition.

The camera is fish-eye of 14 megapixels, the video is HD 1080p, stabilized in three axes.

DOBBY: Zerotech.

Designed for the great selfies of the moment, in a compact pocket size. You should only gently touch the top three times to start the fun in less than three seconds.

Equipped with SNAP 2.0 technology with automatic tracking and shooting of photographs to objects in the mobile state.

Its global electronic stabilization of 3-Aixs guarantees a high-quality shot in flight.

One of the most representative aspects of DOBBY is facial recognition by tracking track algorithm,

in which the face is scanned to begin tracking.

Equipped with GPS and GLONASS and wifi.

fashion and technology. discover how the family adapts

While on the one hand there is the current trend of returning to our origins by recycling vintage garments, valuing that feeling of belonging and affection that has something to carry with a history behind; on the other, new technologies begin to sneak into all the vertices of fashion, placing themselves at the center of the scene to meet the individual requirements that currently afflict.

When back in 1935 the world was amazed by the great invention of nylon as the first synthetic fiber, no one imagined that today would be a compound that to a greater or lesser extent all genres would wear. We do not find it strange to read on our labels "70% nylon, 30% cotton". The same happened with the microfiber presented by Japan in 1980, a textile that we can all enjoy in our jackets and sportswear helping to evaporate the perspiration along with a waterproofing effect.

This will happen in a few years with the so-called smart textiles that today occupy a small market due to its high cost. These genres are interactive both with external stimuli of the environment, and with the stimuli received from the person wearing them, reacting and modifying their behavior. In this way, garments are created with LED lighting, others that monitor our health, digital dyes and accessories that go hand in hand with fashion.

It is no coincidence that Apple hired in 2013 Paul Deneve, former CEO of the firm Yves Saint Laurent, Angela Ahrendts formerly boss of Burberry and Enrique Atienza who was part of Levi Strauss & Co. Wearable technology, or clothing technology, goes arriving and creating an intimate and close relationship with the fashion world.

When Marou Rivero, he placed his Google Glass to interact with the public on the Córdoba Style catwalk, organized by Córdoba Shopping, we all wanted to be part of it. Although they are new to us, they have been in the market for years, and it was Diane Von Furstenberg who presented them for the first time as accessories in their designs at the Spring / Summer 2013 New York Fashion Week.

It is a transparent glasses with metal arms in different colors that intervene in the perception of those who wear them and allow you to take photos and videos and share them in real time thanks to its voice control, touch screen and internet connection. Sarah Jessica Parker, in the front row of the Fashion Weeks, made use of them and Jennifer Lawrence did the same at the premiere of The Hunger Games. We will see what happens with them, but without doubt Google Glass is a new addition that gets along very well with the Street style.

In the same line of accessories that complete the best looks, there is a bracelet called MEMI that vibrates with the notices of your phone. Leslie Simmons and Margaux Guerard, created this extension of your cell that alerts you without having to read on the screen or be attentive to the noise of the phone, called losses, messages or reminders. The same fate runs thenecklace designed by the New York firm Cellini that connects via Bluetooth with Smartphones and tablets and allows you to change the color of your LED indicator adjusting to the look of the wearer. Technology with a lot of style.

But the catwalks are not limited to accessories but also incorporate technology in the garments. The designers Fyodor Podgorny and Golan Fridman, creators of the firm Fyodor Golan presented in one of the latest editions of London Fashion Week an intelligent skirt made of smartphones where the screens showed different parts of the same image to give the illusion of a great picture. At the same time, they were changing with the movement imitating the way in which the tone of a garment changes when it moves from light to shadow and vice versa.

The Dutch stylist Anouk Wipprecht did not want to be left behind and in one of the fashion weeks held in Vienna, Austria, presented a dress called Pseudomorph. It contains a system of bubbles charged with ink that runs on battery. The ink is released by walking painting and transforming the white tissue that functions as a canvas. In this way, the work of art that is created is unique and unrepeatable, highlighting individuality in the face of the massiveness of consumerism.

Another of the firms that pioneered the imposition of technology in their designs was the company Cutecircuit. In their creations we see dresses with LED lights that change colors controlled with small batteries incorporated in the fabric, others that publish tweets and change their design based on Facebook updates. The Galaxy Dress was one of its most brilliant creations where luxury materials such as chiffon or Swarovski crystals are combined with electronic circuits.

Singer Katy Perry wore one of Cutecircuit's designs in May 2010 and Rihanna chose Moritz Waldemeyer, pioneer in the combination of fashion plus technology, to wear on her tour The Last Girl on Earth.

The German engineer Moritz, turned into a very avant-garde artist, was one of the first who dared to mix technology in all kinds of products, including fashion. In fact, he worked with the renowned English fashion designer Hussein Chalayan in his Readings collection, placing all the pieces inlaid with Swarovski crystals that reflected light along with lasers also integrated into the accessories. 

A very striking catwalk, by the way.

From the international catwalks and the great celebrities we go to the closest, to the daily, with creations that take care of us reaching the maximum in the top of functionality and design and of course, trend.

American football player Kevin Plank created his brand Under Armor focused on sun protection. Thus, he designed a series of t-shirts with a breathable system that keeps the body dry and cool as well as providing 360 ° sun protection and reflectivity to run safely in low light conditions. The June bracelet of Netatmo is another of the inventions that, in addition to combining very well with our garments, take care of the UVA rays, measuringthe impact of sun exposure on our skin telling us if we have received enough rays per day.

Self Devices, a company created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, began selling a little piece called Mimo de tela Organico that monitors worrying vital signs that can predict the so-called sudden death that occurs in babies when they sleep. Another company, First Warning Systems is working on a sports bodice with anatomical design that through a screen system performs a scan of the bust and in this way detects or alerts on possible signs of breast cancer.

Well-known brands, leaders in the sports market, such as Nike or Adidas, also work on the fusion of fashion with technology in their proposals and thus help us to maintain a healthy life. "My Elite Coach" is an Adidas system that records data such as strength, heart rate, speed, acceleration and distance covered in a workout that helps to maintain physical performance.

Meanwhile, Nike presented Tech Pack, a proposal of functional clothing made under the specifications of athletes such as Neymar, Rafael Nadal or Maria Sharapova. The collection consists of divers and lightweight jackets that facilitate the natural movement of the body thanks to an innovative fabric of 2 layers of cotton that, fused with another synthetic fabric, provides shelter without adding weight.

Last but not least, it is absolutely necessary to highlight the work of INTI, the National Institute of Industrial Technology of Argentina. It is in charge of the development of textile products oriented both to comfort and to respond to social needs that include insecticides, dyes, vitamins and antimicrobials. The technique for this manufacturing consists of a microencapsulation that covers the substance forming microspheres that are then fixed in the textiles.

Which is the limit? Are there limits?

We could say no. Millions are the examples that show that the relationship between technology and fashion becomes more and more narrow becoming one in itself. The needs of the users advance, they are no longer the same, therefore the fashion must evolve to be able to satisfy them. And without a doubt, everything related to digital and / or technological is one of the tools, if not the only one, that can help provide solutions.

A new stage where the concept of the importance of being proposed by Susana Saulquin fits perfectly. Where what matters is precisely who you are, what are your individual needs and how from the design you can meet them. A conscious consumption where the technologies applied to fashion play a fundamental role to achieve it.

Aviation takes a new direction with artificial intelligence

SANTIAGO.- A long flight may not be a pleasant experience for many people, however, the support of the technology and the new implements on board can make this moment much more pleasant. This is why several airlines have already included some tools to improve the trip.

The technological advance, both in terms of comfort and entertainment on board, has allowed, for example, the inclusion of WiFi networks throughout the flights. This connectivity, which initially was limited, has gradually begun to reach all kinds of service and more and more airlines.

Some companies offer a service paid for on-board data packets so that users can access their emails or social networks during the trip. Others, on the other hand, have systems that allow access to closed networks to watch entertainment content -like movies or television series- through laptops or tablets belonging to each user.

In this aspect, virtual reality still has a lot to say. A French-American start-up called "SkyLights" has started to make partnerships with different airlines to deliver an on-board entertainment system in a much more novel way than the screens in front of each seat.

With a VR viewer - leased to each passenger for 16 dollars - it is possible to access a catalog of films in two and three dimensions to enjoy during the trip.

Another aspect that airlines have tried to achieve over the years is the ability to perform flights in a shorter time than is currently possible. The well-known "supersonic" flights.

After the accident in 2000 with an AirFrance aircraft that left more than 100 people dead, not much progress has been made in this matter.

However, recently, Virgin Galactic has made a commercial partnership with Boom Technology for the development of an aircraft that is capable of traveling at twice the speed of most current aircraft.

The comfort, in the seat and the bathroom
During the trip, the use of the bathrooms can complicate more than one person, especially after a few hours on board the plane. This is why Boeing, the renowned aircraft manufacturer, has designed a bathroom capable of "self-cleaning" after each use.

With the integration of ultraviolet lights, the small room eliminates 99.9% of the bacteria. This process occurs in only three seconds after a passenger leaves the bathroom. In addition, Boeing integrated "hands-free" controls for all tools in the bathroom, so from the opening of the toilet, to washing hands, users should not touch anything inside the room.

Another discomfort that passengers usually suffer on board an airplane is the variation in temperature. Either because the air conditioning is too cold or the heating is very hot, taking off and putting on blankets and vests is often the problem for many people.

Because of this, some companies have begun to develop acclimatable seats for airplanes. The same ones that are currently found in some vehicles have begun to take the aircraft to improve the stay in the air during long trips, and ensure a nap with the exact temperature for each person.

A truly "Premium" flight

For those seeking comfort and a unique experience, companies such as Virgin Atlantic have integrated special lights into their cabins that not only change with the mood of the passengers, but are also capable of integrating landscapes and special images of the destination of the flight.

In this way, an ambience is achieved with the place that will be reached from before and, for those who were still resting, a much more gradual return.

Another novelty on board an airplane are the customizable booths for the executive service class. The designers of PriestmanGoode cabins have started to work together with some airlines for customizable distributions. These are modular spaces so that companies can adapt them to the requests of each user.

This is how technology has evolved in cars

The automotive world is a field of constant innovation. In the same way, the technology implemented in the cars is advancing by leaps and bounds, providing greater security and user connectivity.

The technology on board the cars has changed radically in recent decades. Today, vehicles are more respectful of the environment, safer and more loaded with advantages ranging from intelligent cruise control systems to frontal collision warning systems, rear vision cameras, lane departure warning and much more.

The interior of the car is where these changes are most perceived. From those distant yesterdays when technology meant a cassette player radio, until yesterday, where even compact discs have been replaced by satellite radio, streaming radio, USB with thousands of songs and much more.

What is the technology that most Mexican drivers value?

But technology is not limited to issues related to music. According to Christophe Koeming, media representative of BMW X Models, the technological characteristics that matter most to the Mexican consumer is the connectivity provided by systems such as Android Auto and Apple Car Play, as well as navigation systems.

The above is worthy of recognition given that BMW is a pioneer in the field of on-board connectivity. Without going any further, BMW ConnectedDrive recently reached its 20th anniversary.

The BMW Connected technology includes the BMW Remote system that allows the location of the vehicle, turn on the air conditioning or remote heating, remote viewing of the surroundings of the vehicle in 3D and sending of addresses from the mobile, among others.

Technology also makes handling safer

Beyond BMW, other brands have implemented technologies that help make driving safer, such as cameras that allow a 360 degree view around the vehicle.

Returning to the subject of the Bavarian firm, its Driving Assistant Plus technology, which includes 23 different assistances, is the most requested by customers. These include: Active Cruise Speed ​​Control with Stop & Go function, Lane Guidance and Direction Assistant, Lane Change Assistant, Traffic Warning in the front and rear, Trip Departure Warning, Collision Warning, among other.
Also, the technology applied in the current cars include LED lights with anti-glare road light assistant or directional lights, as is the case of Subaru with its EyeSight system.

Do users make the most of technology?

But how do you make sure that the owners get the most out of the technological load of the vehicle? In the specific case of BMW Group, they have BMW and MINI Genius, whose experts provide specialized attention on technical issues of BMW and MINI products, helping customers understand how the technology implemented in each car works.

Another brand that is not far behind in technology is Ford, which has made great advances in this field thanks to advanced technologies that we saw some time ago in the Ford Focus as the cruise control adaptive cruise and Stop & Go function, which are combined with technologies Rail maintenance and traffic signal recognition can achieve a level 2 autonomous driving.

Equally noteworthy is your famous SYNC 3 infotainment system that in some cases has an 8-inch screen and is also one of the best in voice recognition.

Also inside Ford cars users have wireless charger for smartphones, sound systems that improve with each generation and some amazing things like the FordPass Connectcon system emergency call and mobile application to unlock the doors or locate the vehicle.

What awaits us in the future?

As we have seen lately the autonomous cars will be the next step of technology in cars. Waymo, Uber, Apple, Volkswagen and the BMWs and Ford, among many others, are working on their own versions of cars that will be used alone in the future.

However, before we see those cars circulate freely through streets, avenues and roads around the world, cities will have to be adapted with the necessary infrastructure so that these autonomous cars can function properly, that is, with visible signs that can be detected by the sensors and radars of the cars.

Nor should we forget that many of these cars will be electric, so it will also increase the charging stations and even place systems that can charge electric vehicles by induction, as is already being seen in some parking lots in Europe.

These future autonomous cars will not only be able to handle themselves, but in many cases they will also be able to detect our mood and act accordingly, suggesting a place to dine and many other things, as Nissan has already suggested with its revolutionary Brain-To-Vehicle technology that we will see in their cars of future generations.

beautiful achievement of technology in medicine

The importance that technology has acquired in the world of medicine is a fact. We see how this field, more than others, is being benefited, to a large extent, by the new advances.

It is said that the future of medicine goes hand in hand with digital, making medical practices much more efficient and faster. Currently, thanks to the softwares that are created for the healthcare sector, a large volume of very useful and relevant patient data can be stored. With these data, correlated and contrasted with each other, it is much easier and more reliable to know which treatment to apply to each patient accurately.

In addition, it is clear to see how easily the technological systems have been integrated into the hospital centers. They work to give greater quality to the patient and, in turn, they pay more attention to their health to, thanks to certain applications, control and manage their respective cases.

5 technologies that have changed medicine:

Telemedicine: transfer of health information through communication networks, which allows patients in distant and remote places to receive medical assistance. Videoconferences are very profitable and beneficial ways to complement local health services. Telemedicine helps a lot in the interactive processes between professionals, patients and equipment.

Communication: technological innovation has facilitated communication between health agencies. To relate to each other, professionals advance in the dissemination of their field knowledge more immediately. Online discussion platforms are used, meetings in real time, immediate access to all electronic records from any department, etc., which translates into better management of each patient's cases.

Big Data: the large amount of data makes the entire medical field benefit from research studies. For professionals in the area, it is a way to be always updated and keep abreast of the trends, techniques and new technologies that are emerging and are improving. By comparing a patient's case with that of thousands of others, risk factors and the treatment that must be followed can be identified more instantaneously and automatically. Research transforms ideas into something real.

Mobile applications: with them, patients can manage their health and wellbeing more easily and more immediately. The apps manage their checks, give them access to their results safely and other general medical information.

Robotic procedures: with robotic surgery it was passed to give greater precision to delicate operations (such as neurological and cardiac). Glasses of mixed reality like those of Google, have opened a new scenario of knowledge and opportunities.

The future of medicine:

It is estimated that ten years from now we will be able to see more medical advances than in the entire last century. We will take giant steps thanks to data collection, artificial intelligence, apps and, above all, a new technological vision applied to a change in the health paradigm.

There is already talk that in the future medicine will be much more personalized, without such generic treatments. By having treatments more in tune with individual reality, efficiency will increase. For example, 3D printers have already opened a world when it comes to helping society. The fact that organs can be manufactured, would stop waiting for transplants among many other things.

It is clear that the future of medicine includes technology. Because well-being is not a trend, it's a matter of health and, health, is better cared for thanks to technology.

optimal resolution 4K ULTRA HD.

Ultra HD 4K is the last word we must learn in relation to the quality of the image on TVs. Since the appearance of television, the quality of the image has been increasing considerably with each new technology to reach what is currently called Ultra HD.

The evolution of the resolution of television screens from 1926 until now has been really impressive. From the 800 lines of the first SD TVs, through the first HD with 1080 px or the current Full HD technology with 1920 px. Now with the 4K we move to almost 4,000 px.

Ultra HD 4K Technology.

The Ultra HD 4K technology that can be found in the most current TVs is an improvement in the resolution and quality of the image that is 4 times more than that achieved by the current TVs with HD definition, reaching 3840 × 2160 pixels. Some, like LG, give it the name Ultra HD.
They are highly recommended TVs to enjoy the high resolution channels offered by some fiber optic platforms. Channels like Canal + already broadcast in this quality and YouTube allows recently upload videos with that resolution.

The name Ultra HD 4K (short for 4,000 pixels) was the big news at the Consumer Electronic Show in Las Vegas where the main companies presented monitors with very tight prices, € 500 compared to € 2,000 that were worth today.

Some television platforms are already creating content with this new resolution that some catalog of hyperreality for its great realism, something that will replace the unrealistic 3D television. The current 2014 Brazilian Soccer World Cup is already played and distributed in Ultra HD 4K.

Although the image quality is better in Plasma, it seems that everyone prefers LCD TVs, which with this technology results in devices that are increasingly real and ultra-thin, so the disappearance of Plasma is imminent .

The future is 8K.

Although 4K technology is a breakthrough, it is still not the limit. The limit of perception of the human eye is 8K. If the 4K becomes an 84-inch screen at a resolution of 3,840 x 2,160 pixels, the future 8K assumes a 145-inch screen (that is, its diagonal is 3.7 meters long), whose resolution is 7,680 × 4,320 pixels where each frame is equivalent to a 32 megapixel image of a camera.

A technology that already in 2012 the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), department of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) dependent on the UN, approved the Super Hi-Vision 8K as a standard of the television industry . This body has been standardizing communications worldwide since 1865, giving approval to standards such as the protocol of fax machines, Internet Protocol (IP), JPEG images, ADSL and H-video coding standard. 264, among many others. That is, the future will be in 8K.

analog and digital sound.

Analog sound is that which is stored, processed and reproduced thanks to electronic circuits and other analogue devices. For ex. Magnetic tape (cassette or coil) or vinyl record.

The technology applied to analog sound processing works in the following way: the sound wave produces a vibration in the air that is picked up by a microphone. This converts the vibration into an electrical signal that travels through a cable to the recording device. The recording is produced magnetically (in cassette tape or coil), through sound recording / reproducing heads that make physical contact with the surface of the tape. This leads to wear of the material with use.

The duplication of sound in analog format (copying from one medium to another) always entails a loss of quality. When successive copies are made, increasing quality losses occur.

The Digital Sound, on the other hand, is the one that is stored, processed and reproduced on digital media, in the form of numerical data. There are several digital sound storage devices: minidisc, DAT, CD-Audio, CD-Rom, DVD, DCC, hard disks, floppy disks, zip and jazz, (including the video tape, since the audio track that incorporates it is digital).

The capture of sound by the microphone is the same as in the analog case. But the electrical signal it generates is converted into numerical data by an analog / digital converter (sampler) that interposes between the micro and the recording device.

This process of converting the signal into numerical data is done several times per second and is called Digital Sound Sampling (sampling). The sampling frequency is measured in Khz. In CD-Audio this frequency is 44.1 Khz. (professional quality). On the computer and on CD-Rom, the necessary sampling frequency is lower: 22 Khz is enough for music and 11 Khz for speech.
It is preferable to work with the highest sampling frequency allowed by the equipment and reduce it at the end, doing a downsampling.

The resolution of the digital sound can be 8, 16, 24 or 32 bits. The higher the resolution, the more space the file occupies. Computers usually work at 8 or 16 bits of resolution.

Digital sound can also be generated on the computer itself. There is a standard called MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) that allows you to save the "instructions" of playing musical sounds (only instruments, but not voices), so that any computer with the appropriate software can play on your card. sound those "instructions" thus executing the melody composed in MIDI. The great advantage of this standard is the small size of its files, which allows its use on the Net.

Digital sound also has two fundamental advantages over analog sound. First, digital audio editing does not have to be linear and, therefore, is considered "non-destructive" (any step of editing can be modified without altering the rest of the recording). Second, the successive copies do not lose quality.

modern technology.

The twentieth century has been a technological revolution that has allowed us fundamental changes in communication, information and learning; These changes have been happening at speeds not previously calculated. Today the information is taken to equidistant points, thousands of kilometers, in seconds. The time has been reduced to the maximum; the space that was equivalent to time in terms of communication has also been reduced. There are few people who do not know about others who are far away and how they live, what they think, what happens to them, how they work and how they learn and live. In this way, the time-space dimension has been reduced thanks to technology.

With current technology we can have more experiences, shorten the learning time, live faster or perhaps live longer, since time is prolonged from a certain point of view. Research becomes easier and better, the decisions of man more adjusted to reality; there may also be an error in the handling of computers; For example, in the maneuver of nuclear rockets, destroying our planet and with this our technological civilization, or simply with the abuse of the use of computers, mental functions can be atrophied due to their non-use; It could happen that a small group is the one who thinks and works or believes and manages the entire mass, and within it a few would be those who would implement and fix the machines, or it could be that the same computer would be programmed to fix itself. same if necessary, leaving man aside. In any case, man would remain with his feelings, his values, his vital impulses, his biological, emotional needs, to love and to know.

Currently teaching is discussed through "computer" with computers and automation. The computers, the pocket calculators, are already in primary and secondary school. Today the calculations that took hours and even days are done in seconds thanks to computers. Today just enough to maneuver a few buttons so that the data in the computer solve a series of problems that previously required up to months or years. In this way innumerable problems of time, space, money and human errors have been avoided. Today the teaching of computer programming is not a mystery or a matter of electronic scientists; The boy is already being taught since childhood the theory of sets, which then, understanding it, is the basis for understanding systems theory and then programming.

The change has been so rapid that the same man has not yet learned to find all the objectives about the role of machines in the future and how humans should use them and behave with respect to this technology. Computing has brought and will bring sociological and psychological problems and, therefore, its impact on learning. One of the problems that can be observed is how the subject can be machined in such a way that he does not think but acts, he does not imagine anything but a machine, he becomes another machine and instrument that handles the machine; it is transformed into the man-machine, of which in a writing of thirty years ago, I personally raised it, and that I can then transcribe, under the title "THE MECHANICAL BRAIN, THE CYBERNETIC AND HUMAN FREEDOM" (1953), It is interesting how in it, before the computers were developed, they were already considering the future consequences. 

"A short time ago, the Cybernetics Congress was held in Madrid, a science that was born in Spain and is now generally known." The Greeks called the art of piloting 'cybernetics'; Today is the science that dominates, leads and directs. Technicians have used it to create 'animal machines', brains and even human 'robots'. All these devices are conducted creating defenses against aggressive agents, adapting to the environment and performing calculations that many men at the time could not do. They have created machines that keep memories, just as human memory does, electronic brains that even have the capacity to be wrong and to be exact (this last difficult in man), turtles that seek cold or heat and that even awaken the appetite ... All this leads sometimes to laugh and others to think about the innumerable unknowns that keep nature and the universe.

"Man wants to create life and some wise people believe they have in their hands the technical tools for the creation of man. New philosophical and metaphysical speculations are made. It is said and repeated to have already mastered the possibility of creating life. "

"It is science of cybernetics, which makes a parallel with the nervous system, has allowed to create artifacts that come to behave almost like a man; and happily I say 'almost', because they are incapable of being able to devise themselves and lack the capacity to create.

"At the present time, in this turbulent world, of surprising discoveries and incredible mechanical and technological advances, civilization has made man a machine, and this, in turn, has created machines that in many things surpass it. But these 'robots' do not have the faculty of being free, but they need man for their operation, maintenance and repair; they depend on it and only with their information they work, while man produces his own information. But, above all, they lack consciousness, personality, freedom and responsibility, precise attributes of the human spirit. It is intended that the very essence of existence has been reached or will be known; But as Luis Brillouin recently said in France, 'cybernetics can not be expected to provide us in the future with the solution of the enigma of life, of conscience and of thought'. The 'man-machines' or artificial men that they intend to create can calculate, remember, adapt, act and even think, but they can never decide.

"A news that in Europe alarmed the scientific centers was that in Russia they were doing experiments in the laboratories of psychology with the so-called 'electronic brainwashing'. It is said that with him the mnemic representations are erased (or washed) and then men can be created, in accordance with pre-established mood patterns, changing the old personality, creating new capacities of experience, adaptation, reaction and new potentials . It seems that this 'brainwashing' is something different from the repeated treatment of electric shock.

"If electronic brainwashing is used with the results that announce the information received, it would result that today's science allows men to build, no longer electronic brains or machine-men powered by electronic energy, but 'machine-men' 'despotentialized with that same energy.

"We know that Russian science has at its disposal a large part of the national budget for the widening of the works carried out in its laboratories of experimental psychology, and thatin them studies of man are carried out in relation to society, family, religion and the different environments in which he must act. And we know, also, that each experience leads the experimenters to the conviction that man can not live isolated, without society, without family, without religion, because he is, after all, leading man to rejoin, that is, to re-link in the spiritual unity, within a continuity.

"If electronic washing were adopted as usual, we would already have the end of human freedom. And it happens to ask: How far can man be free and to what extent science and to what extent does science have the right or the freedom to dispossess the human being of it? We already know that there are many people who prefer death to the loss of freedom. But we are reaching a time when man, bored with it, wants to take away that privilege of thinking freely.

"It has corresponded to the current man to live in the era of the greatest discoveries, and not yet satisfied, pretend to reach the 'heaven' and the 'universe' as it happened to the men who became confused at Babel.

"To what extent also in the Western Hemisphere has the man-machine of consumption been created, which buys, consumes and re-buys motivated by the forces coming from advertising, which at the same time wash, contaminate, alienate and / or motivate the being in one direction or another? So it would be another way of brainwashing, of directing and driving man by turning him into a machine. What consequences does this have and has it had? Thinking in a single sense, we would have a defense, a resistance with active or passive violence, before that phenomenon; this is how we find the 'antis', which exist in different directions. From all this we can conclude how in one way or another human freedom feels affected and science itself can and is used to intervene in decisions. It would be up to you if, how healthy, orderly motivations, which seek good and balance, are what move scientists in their science and technology to integrate man into their internal and external freedom.

"Today, the coupling of the sciences is a reality; we no longer work unilaterally, but as a team, which has led us and leads us to progress, to the advancement and to the conquest of what has not been found. But this same can confuse us, because looking for the solution of everything we come to nothing. In the same way, if we face the limitations, the renunciation of omnipotence and omnisapience, in such a way we could find a more real and more kind path for future generations. In those renunciations and limitations, it would be possible to find a balance between rights and duties, the result of which would give us a measurement point of responsible and conscious freedom ".

If before I referred to the so-called "electronic washing" and "man-machine", today we can think that there are mental washes caused by the flood of propaganda and by the idealization of science and technology; this is why we observe the tendency for children to use calculators and computers indiscriminately, even more, it is sometimes thought that the child must collect or accumulate the most information not always for creativity but rather to show his sapience; this is how we find the famous programs on television that show off knowledge and praise and reward those who know about a subject such as encyclopedias; fortunately educators have not fallensuch failure and this is why it is more noticeable the tendency for the child to learn to think, how to understand and how to use their knowledge in order to create.

It is men who can create machines and not these to the human being, but it is possible that the moment comes when man allows himself to be commanded by the response of the logic programmed in the electronic machine; in such a way many subjects or the same mass dominated by electronics will be seen; perhaps we are already observing it through television, machine or apparatus, which recreates, in the sense of fun or distraction, but which automates thought or, better, cancels it by not allowing the subject to actually learn and think.

Other problems that arise are that the subject can become ankylosed or underdeveloped intuition, being lazy before the obligation to calculate and think. The computer and computer technicians must plan and imagine what the changes, the methods, the instruments that should be applied to the aforementioned transformations that arise from the use of computers will be. It is important, I believe, that before forming men-machines, we have to train more and better thinking men and for that we must teach how to think. Currently we are faced with the disproportionality, on the one hand, of the technological advances in information technology, communication and computers, and on the other hand with the natural evolution of the human being. We are facing a crisis of different points of view; one of them is that the subject now has to learn to adapt to that new system of life that the new technology is imposing; therefore, technicians will also have to think about how media and systems should be created to teach the subject in this new adaptation and thus face the world of tomorrow with prevention. Currently even the fantasies of the prophecies, including those of Nostradamus, have been taken to the examination of the computer apparently creating a mathematical possibility to the fantasies of the sixteenth century.

It is possible that new technologies will help us in this new adaptation that has made reference, which will survive the coldness of the machine in this convulsed world, where what is most desired is to have more, regardless of being and existing transcendent. The race of position and physical well-being has been created in a competition of who can more physically, intellectually, technologically and scientifically, to repeat, to "have" more, as if in that having there is a better being. Perhaps the machines themselves help the man to a new encounter with himself, with a participation of the "other" in a "we", stripped of envy, jealousy, rivalry and fratricidal selfishness, in order to learn from the world that surrounds him, from himself and of others, knowing and thinking.

Computing is therefore leading to different fields of knowledge; In pedagogy, the "computer unit" -computer-screen-machine-keyboard-signals-discs, aided by audio, can be used in the teaching-learning process, applying them, for example, in the teaching of the language, the grammar, with images and words, with a methodologically programmed order, in order to form and grammatically integrate the words, which are chosen with their specific meaning and ideation, to form the discourse and the concept.

The teaching of a language, in such a way, becomes shorter, simpler, more synthetic. In the social area, it is possible to program by synthesizing concepts and stimulating the subject to complete the idea. The same applies to geography in its descriptive, economic, functional and quantitative aspects; in the same way it is feasible to teach the formulas andchemical and physical structures in their theoretical aspect, without leaving aside the practical aspect, so important in teaching. Perhaps it is mathematics that can be taught the most by computers, programming the numbers, symbols or signs in the image on the screen, and with it the concept of sets, of systems, making the child learn by playing. This is another means of teaching and learning using modern technology. Thus with computers it is possible to facilitate the child to learn to think not by sticking to the computer but by using it to form concepts, abstractions, concretizations, to finally carry out analysis and synthesis that take him to formal knowledge and to the dialectic scientist.

The general education must use the computers, and the same instruction of the handling of the same ones is indispensable to give it today to the young student, to which also it is due to teach to him to investigate using the computers for with this also to arrive at the creativity. The important thing now is to create pedagogical programs that are aided by computer systems, adapting them to current and future life.

It is possible that computers can also help us in the field of physical and mental health to diagnose, know the disorder and thus also be able to find more quickly and easily the right solutions or remedies, with a minimum of error. In the same way, it will be possible to find faster, more synthetic and concrete learning methods that can better develop the capacities of thought and creativity. However, the doctor, the teacher, the scientist, the creator, the artist or simply man can not be replaced. Man is always required to help man with his conceptual functions. The machine may have replaced the functions that lead to memorization without error, but it can not replace the conceptual functions.

This is why it is necessary to be thinking about how to create updated or programmed pedagogical methodologies for future children.
With the above I do not mean that everything can be resolved by computers, quite the opposite; Moreover, not everyone will have the skills to manage them, but everyone should be given the opportunity to confront this technology.

It is well known how the human being is being created or stimulated the omnipotence of the calculation, of the memorization of data, of the meeting of already given solutions, of control of the image, of the facilitation of knowing information with devices that have and are handled with one hand, and all in a fraction of seconds, at the time we want. In the future, perhaps very close to each house, and even each subject, will have a computer or a calculator to program their relationship life. For all the above it is clear that the human being requires not only new adaptations and encounters of sociological, pedagogical methodologies, but changes of attitudes of mentality in free form, being open to the immensity of possibilities that lead us to improve the organization of ideas, of knowledge, of work, of criteria and concepts, making better analysis and synthesis, being able to abstract and specify better in order to be able to create.

If previously memorizing machines had been created in the human being, today we have to create thinking men and not machine machines, because we would not find in the same situation when the object was supposed to react according to certain pre-established patterns and normative, and therefore the subject was not allowed to think, act, be and exist. The danger is that the same machine will be reached with the same machine.

There are already design projects of a "thinking apparatus", that is, of how the mind is supposed to come to think, according to the known functions; in this operation we can find a variety of functions that are feasible to be brought to the machines, to the electronic brains; but some functions can not be programmed in any system device, because they belong, until now, to man; thus, for example, among them are the functions of symbolization, of formation of dream thinking, of preconception and conception proper. Repeating or copying the human mental apparatus would be equivalent to making another man with all his nature, in his image and likeness, or with the same identity as a man.

From all this it is clear again how necessary it is to take into account that both technology and science must be at the service of man and not at the service of them, nor become slaves of them, deifying them. The more we investigate, in any field we encounter the limits of knowledge and man in his knowledge and learning.

Science and technology as social processes. What science education should not forge.

Jorge Núñez Jover.

Postgraduate Director of the University of Havana

Epistemology. Introduction.

The successes of science, in its alliance with technology, are undoubted. They have given us a great capacity to explain, control and transform the world.

The importance of science and technology increases to the extent that the world enters into what has been called "the knowledge society", that is, societies in which the importance of knowledge is constantly growing due to its incorporation to the productive and service processes, for their relevance in the exercise of popular participation in the processes of government and also for the good conduct of personal and family life.

The enormous cognitive capacity of humanity must exert an ever greater influence on the life of societies and people.

That is why the reflection on science is a subject to which modern thought, especially that of the second half of this century, has devoted special attention.

This essay is aimed at people who study science (natural, social, technical or other) or are interested in them to present a certain image of science as it emerges from the contemporary debate. Teaching and learning science requires a certain "epistemological vigilance" that prevents our epistemic acts from being conducted by approaches that simplify and distort the real nature of scientific praxis.

The thesis that animates my exposition is this: we not only need to know about science but about science.

As I believe, the relevance of this approach is extensive to people who are mainly engaged in technology activity. Science and modern technology are inseparable; consequently they have become almost indistinguishable activities. It is difficult to know what people who work in a research-development laboratory in a large industry are doing: do they do science or do they do technology? Maybe they just do "technoscience", an activity where the old limits are blurred.

In any case, any discussion about science is relevant to technology and vice versa. Ultimately it is about knowledge and its social significance.
The Domain of Science and Technology

Modern technology supported by scientific development (technoscience) exerts an extraordinary influence on social life in all its areas: economic, political, military, cultural. The Scientific Revolution of the XVII Century, and the Industrial Revolution started in the XVIII Century wererelatively independent processes. The reciprocal and systematic fertilization between science and technology is, above all, a phenomenon that materializes from the second half of the century and is accentuated notably in the current century. The transition from the 20th century to the 21st century is a period marked by scientific and technological development.

The first thing a student who joins studies in the fields of science and technology must know is that he submerges himself in one of the territories that define world power to a large extent.

The image of science as an activity of isolated individuals who eagerly seek truth without other interests than cognitive ones, sometimes transmitted by textbooks, does not coincide at all with the social reality of contemporary science. To a great extent, the scientific and technological development of this century has been driven by interests linked to the desire for world hegemony of the great powers and to the demands of industrial development and consumption patterns that are produced and disseminated from the societies that have marked the advanced in modernization processes.

That is why States and large transnational corporations are among the main protagonists of contemporary science and technology.

During the nineteenth century came the so-called academic science linked to the professionalization of scientific work and the consolidation of scientific research as a relevant function of the university (the paradigm is the German University of the early nineteenth century). In this process also crystallized the image of science as a disinterested search for the truth to which I alluded earlier.

But the relationship between science and society has undergone abrupt changes in this century. However, until barely two decades ago an approach that today is considered unsatisfactory prevailed. The idea was that we had to invest heavily in basic research, which in the long run would generate technological innovation and this would favor social development. After this idea, in the period between World War II and the seventies a lot of money was invested for this purpose. The economic crisis experienced by world capitalism forced us to reconsider this approach and move to a much more dirigiste model of scientific and technical development. This is what is characteristic of the so-called Third Industrial Revolution, characterized by the leadership of microelectronics and the leading role of Biotechnology, the search for new forms of energy, new materials, among other sectors.

Today there is little scientific practice away from interests of application for economic or other purposes, which has implications for scientific activity, the lives of scientists, the institutions that host them and their relationships with society. Business psychology and ideology are present in the world of science. It is not by pleasure that the ethical problems associated with science and technology constitute daily concerns today. It has been said that the accumulated power is so much that the question: what can be done? has been displaced by what should be done?

But that extraordinary power is very poorly distributed worldwide. The vast majority of scientific and technological capacity is concentrated in a small group of industrialized countries. The scientific and industrial revolutions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries developed in Europeassociated with the economic, political and cultural change experienced by those societies since the Renaissance.

Over the next two centuries, some countries managed to actively join these processes, including the United States, Russia and Japan.

Most of the world, however, has hardly any participation in the definition and execution of scientific-technical courses. It has been said that world science is even more concentrated than world wealth. Latin America, for example, has very little participation in science and technology: just over 2% of the scientists and engineers who perform research and development tasks on the planet and just over 1% of the resources that are invested for that purpose .

Especially since the sixties it has been insisting that the exit of underdevelopment requires the creation of science and technology capabilities. But discourses have overflowed to practical realizations.

Within this scenario, Cuba's position is very unique: in relation to its economic resources the country has made an extraordinary effort in science and technology which expresses a very defined political will. Cuba continues to bet on scientific and technological development as a vehicle for social development. The ambition to satisfy the basic human needs (in health, food, etc.) and the need to articulate the Cuban economy in a beneficial way to the international economy, are the motives of Cuban scientific and technological development that rests on an educational effort sustained by almost 40 years.

While most of the Third World countries have relinquished their leading role in the scientific field, Cuba insists on developing an endogenous scientific and technological base. The problem of the relationship science-technology-development is for our country a fundamental issue. Within this ambitious purpose, the social responsibility of the technical scientific intelligentsia is essential.

Is science neutral?

In this section I introduce a fundamental discussion for the theoretical interpretation of science. A misjudgment on the subject would prevent achieving a balanced view of the relationship between social commitment and intellectual honesty in science.

To discuss the matter I will follow the thread of the analysis on neutrality developed by Agazzi (1996). For him it is necessary to discern between several fundamental senses of the neutrality: like "disinterestedness", like "independence of prejudices", like "not being at the service of interests", like "freedom of conditioning", or like "indifference towards ends" (p.68).

Is it possible to recognize the neutrality of science in any of these senses? The social studies of science developed during this century (Núñez, 1989) have highlighted the social nature of scientific practice and its consequent commitment to the values, priorities and interests of the structure and social agents. That is, science is a social activity linked to the other forms of human activity. The processes of production, dissemination and application of knowledge specific to scientific activity are inexplicable regardless of the economic, political, military interests, among others that characterize the various social contexts.

In this perspective, science is an institutionalized activity, permeable to social values ​​and interests and can not be neutral.

However, the conclusion may not be so clear if attention is paid to science as knowledge, that is, if we pay attention to the cognitive value of theories and other expressions of knowledge. If, in a hurried way, the non-neutrality preached for science as an activity to the understanding of science as knowledge is extended, one can arrive at the negation of scientific objectivity; An ideal of social commitment for science could be sustained, but in this way I do not see how to retain the sense of intellectual honesty understood as a commitment to objectivity. Agazzi puts it this way: "it must be concluded that science can not be neutral as an activity while it is and it should be as knowledge" (p.71).

Science is activity and it is knowing. Neither one nor the other separately. The limits between both expressions of science can only be recognized with an analytical purpose. However, as will be seen immediately, this distinction can be useful in exploring the different senses of neutrality mentioned above.

Let's start with neutrality as "disinterest." The scientific activity is inexplicable regardless of social interests. These interests are expressed, for example, in the financing of science, in the priorities established for it. These interests, however, do not deny the interest in producing objective knowledge, the properly cognitive interests that favor objectivity. Moreover, the interests that try to instrumentalize science and put it at the service of the most varied purposes, require objective knowledge that makes science useful knowledge. Scientific policies, research programs, institutions that articulate scientific work are not neutral with respect to the social goals that give them life, but this does not make the knowledge obtained the expression of a particular economic or political interest, although its use does usually subordinate to them.

Let's look at the idea of ​​neutrality as "independence of prejudices." Here the word prejudice does not have a pejorative sense; refers to "a certain complex preconstituted convictions, intellectual attitudes, mental habits, valuations, etc." (Agazzi, p.72). The science seen as an activity can not be neutral with respect to the prejudices thus defined. Each individual, collectivity, society, age, carry such prejudices that influence the way of doing science, the choice of fields of research, priorities in teaching and other expressions of scientific practice.

We must recognize that these prejudices also influence science as knowledge. The criteria of objectivity and rationality are subject to certain contingency and historical determination. The construction of objective knowledge is always achieved within preset conceptual and methodological frameworks. Scientists must be aware of the limits imposed by these frameworks on objectivity and endeavor to subordinate their conclusions to the "good reasons" (theoretical, logical, empirical) that can be provided within those frameworks whose limits have been critically evaluated. In this way science as knowledge achieves a certain neutrality with respect to prejudices: "science as knowledge can and must be neutral with respect to prejudices, becoming aware of them and of their partiality" (ibid, p.73).It is obvious that this ability to evaluate and criticize prejudices is limited and therefore objectivity is often threatened. The construction of an objective knowledge requires a permanent disposition to discuss the prejudices that inform the scientific conclusions and through this a reasonable degree of neutrality is attainable.

When we speak of neutrality as "disinterest", we refer to the reasons that drive it. When dealing with neutrality as "not being at the service of interests", the accent falls on the possibility of instrumentalizing science. At the level of science as an activity it is not possible to imagine such kind of neutrality. If we observe science as objective knowledge, the conclusion must be different. Science has contributed to promote within our civilization that moral habit we call intellectual honesty "that is, the underlying attitude that consists in the refusal to silence the truth, to camouflage it, or to pass it off as false, as a gift to the interests of any Even if they were particularly noble and altruistic, it is not possible to renounce this form of neutrality of science without having to pay a very high fee in terms of the bankruptcy of civilization "(ibid, p.76).

Of course, very diverse interests can penetrate scientific knowledge; Intellectual honesty must be an antidote to impose limits on that tendency.

Neutrality can also be interpreted as "freedom from conditioning". Scientific activity is always subject to conditioning; they define priorities, financing, obstacles. Knowledge is not produced in any direction and with speed in all areas. However, the scientific enterprise, the institutions that carry it out, the collectives that work in it, are obliged to claim a certain reasonable level of autonomy, thus avoiding that the properly cognitive interest, the purpose of advancing the knowledge is excluded from the acceptable conditions for the promotion of scientific activity: "If it renounces to fight such a battle it ends up in the bottom renouncing itself" (ibid, p.77).

The sense of neutrality as "indifference to ends" allows on the one hand to recognize the diversity of purposes that can guide science as an activity and on the other, to identify the distinctive and fundamental purpose of science. Even admitting that science can pursue different purposes in diverse contexts such as research, application, teaching or others (Echeverría, 1995), we can admit that its fundamental purpose, the "defining and constitutive end of the field of science as knowledge" it is the production of objective knowledge.

Science can not and should not be neutral with respect to various social ends, it can not be alienated from them by claiming that it does not concern them; this would be myopia or hypocrisy. But science must reserve a space for objectivity by defending its value as an authentic end.

This journey through the theme of neutrality is intended to leave standing that the social nature of scientific activity prevents accepting its neutrality with regard to conditioning, ends, social values. Science always keeps a social commitment. The collectives that accept or promote science can and should ask themselves in reference to what social values, what priorities and interests will develop their activity.

Digital Photography.

Thanks to the participation of the readers of MuyComputer with more than two thousand five hundred answers to the questionnaire, we have been able to know the opinion of the users about digital photography and in particular about reflex cameras. With this report we will know how many digital cameras and what type users have in their homes, in addition to other details on what they think about digital reflex cameras, if they plan to acquire one and if not, what would encourage them to do so.

The digital photography has entered little by little in our habitual uses until replacing the traditional one without hardly fussing. Storing our shots on a data medium, editing our photos, sharing them on the Internet ... has become commonplace. We have believed that at this stage of maturity of digital photography it is time to take the pulse.

For this we wanted to make a report in which more than two thousand five hundred people have participated (thanks also to the generous prize donated by Sony) in which some details are broken down on the use and opinion that digital photography deserves us after so many years installed between us. As an additional objective we wanted to put the accent on the digital SLR cameras.

SLRs have represented photography professionals and amateurs in the analog world with concerns beyond the takings for memory. A body independent of the lens and superior optical features to compact cameras attached to higher prices and greater complexity and versatility when taking photographs were, roughly, the credentials that made these models a partly unknown and partly admired breed. user on foot.

With the advent of digital photography, digital SLRs soon landed, bringing the flexibility and power of digital photography to the market of professionals and amateurs. At first timidly, the first cameras were received with suspicion, but nowadays digital SLRs are the irreplaceable tool of professional and amateur photographers.

We wanted to know, among other things, how photography users view digital SLR cameras. After a few years of settlement, the market already offers all kinds of models of this type of cameras, some really affordable. What do users think of reflex cameras? What opinion do you deserve? We will see the results.

Photographic park

The first step in the survey we have done has been to check how many cameras our readers have at home. There are not many surprises, the percentage of users who do not have a digital camera is very low, and they probably do not count as a digital camera the almost inevitable incorporation of their mobile phone.

Almost a third of the respondents, 31%, have two digital cameras, which clearly shows that not only digital photography has settled but users renew or complete their camera fleet in a considerable percentage. The 12% of users who have more than two cameras is also more than appreciable and reinforces the above.

By breaking down the figures in digital reflex cameras, we find that 78% of users do not have one. The percentage of 19% of users with a DSLR at home can be considered high. We can see a takeoff of this type of models that shows that different brands have managed to bring this type of devices to the user, especially in price.

The figures on the age of digital cameras available to our readers have shown an almost equitable distribution within the time frames we had established. The 27% of users with a camera with less than one year is a good figure and if we add this with the following band we find that 57% of users have a camera less than two years old.

Characteristics of the cameras

We give a twist in our study to know the qualitative impressions of the participants of the survey on the use and quality of digital cameras. It is striking with regard to the most important feature to make quality photos how 73% of users look at the quality of the optics compared to other qualities such as the resolution of the sensor that remain at 16%.

It seems that the war of the megapixel is over, and this is how the brands themselves seem to reflect that they focus on other qualities of the cameras in their successive evolutions. Perhaps too low the value given to the power of the image processor, 12%, which is one of the elements that is currently undergoing a more promising evolution.

Focusing on holiday use, most users are divided by the most important feature between the size and weight contained, 35%, and the autonomy of the battery, with 32%. That is to say, the user wants to constantly carry the camera on vacation and does not want to get in his way or leave him in the lurch at the worst moment.

On the other hand, the resistance and ease of use are in the background with 13 and 15%, respectively. It is seen that we have few adventurous readers ... It is striking comic and few have indicated the possibility of making videos as the most relevant feature in this section. A function that despite the improvements introduced in the latest models does not seem to interest too much during the holidays.

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