modern technology.

The twentieth century has been a technological revolution that has allowed us fundamental changes in communication, information and learning; These changes have been happening at speeds not previously calculated. Today the information is taken to equidistant points, thousands of kilometers, in seconds. The time has been reduced to the maximum; the space that was equivalent to time in terms of communication has also been reduced. There are few people who do not know about others who are far away and how they live, what they think, what happens to them, how they work and how they learn and live. In this way, the time-space dimension has been reduced thanks to technology.

With current technology we can have more experiences, shorten the learning time, live faster or perhaps live longer, since time is prolonged from a certain point of view. Research becomes easier and better, the decisions of man more adjusted to reality; there may also be an error in the handling of computers; For example, in the maneuver of nuclear rockets, destroying our planet and with this our technological civilization, or simply with the abuse of the use of computers, mental functions can be atrophied due to their non-use; It could happen that a small group is the one who thinks and works or believes and manages the entire mass, and within it a few would be those who would implement and fix the machines, or it could be that the same computer would be programmed to fix itself. same if necessary, leaving man aside. In any case, man would remain with his feelings, his values, his vital impulses, his biological, emotional needs, to love and to know.

Currently teaching is discussed through "computer" with computers and automation. The computers, the pocket calculators, are already in primary and secondary school. Today the calculations that took hours and even days are done in seconds thanks to computers. Today just enough to maneuver a few buttons so that the data in the computer solve a series of problems that previously required up to months or years. In this way innumerable problems of time, space, money and human errors have been avoided. Today the teaching of computer programming is not a mystery or a matter of electronic scientists; The boy is already being taught since childhood the theory of sets, which then, understanding it, is the basis for understanding systems theory and then programming.

The change has been so rapid that the same man has not yet learned to find all the objectives about the role of machines in the future and how humans should use them and behave with respect to this technology. Computing has brought and will bring sociological and psychological problems and, therefore, its impact on learning. One of the problems that can be observed is how the subject can be machined in such a way that he does not think but acts, he does not imagine anything but a machine, he becomes another machine and instrument that handles the machine; it is transformed into the man-machine, of which in a writing of thirty years ago, I personally raised it, and that I can then transcribe, under the title "THE MECHANICAL BRAIN, THE CYBERNETIC AND HUMAN FREEDOM" (1953), It is interesting how in it, before the computers were developed, they were already considering the future consequences. 

"A short time ago, the Cybernetics Congress was held in Madrid, a science that was born in Spain and is now generally known." The Greeks called the art of piloting 'cybernetics'; Today is the science that dominates, leads and directs. Technicians have used it to create 'animal machines', brains and even human 'robots'. All these devices are conducted creating defenses against aggressive agents, adapting to the environment and performing calculations that many men at the time could not do. They have created machines that keep memories, just as human memory does, electronic brains that even have the capacity to be wrong and to be exact (this last difficult in man), turtles that seek cold or heat and that even awaken the appetite ... All this leads sometimes to laugh and others to think about the innumerable unknowns that keep nature and the universe.

"Man wants to create life and some wise people believe they have in their hands the technical tools for the creation of man. New philosophical and metaphysical speculations are made. It is said and repeated to have already mastered the possibility of creating life. "

"It is science of cybernetics, which makes a parallel with the nervous system, has allowed to create artifacts that come to behave almost like a man; and happily I say 'almost', because they are incapable of being able to devise themselves and lack the capacity to create.

"At the present time, in this turbulent world, of surprising discoveries and incredible mechanical and technological advances, civilization has made man a machine, and this, in turn, has created machines that in many things surpass it. But these 'robots' do not have the faculty of being free, but they need man for their operation, maintenance and repair; they depend on it and only with their information they work, while man produces his own information. But, above all, they lack consciousness, personality, freedom and responsibility, precise attributes of the human spirit. It is intended that the very essence of existence has been reached or will be known; But as Luis Brillouin recently said in France, 'cybernetics can not be expected to provide us in the future with the solution of the enigma of life, of conscience and of thought'. The 'man-machines' or artificial men that they intend to create can calculate, remember, adapt, act and even think, but they can never decide.

"A news that in Europe alarmed the scientific centers was that in Russia they were doing experiments in the laboratories of psychology with the so-called 'electronic brainwashing'. It is said that with him the mnemic representations are erased (or washed) and then men can be created, in accordance with pre-established mood patterns, changing the old personality, creating new capacities of experience, adaptation, reaction and new potentials . It seems that this 'brainwashing' is something different from the repeated treatment of electric shock.

"If electronic brainwashing is used with the results that announce the information received, it would result that today's science allows men to build, no longer electronic brains or machine-men powered by electronic energy, but 'machine-men' 'despotentialized with that same energy.

"We know that Russian science has at its disposal a large part of the national budget for the widening of the works carried out in its laboratories of experimental psychology, and thatin them studies of man are carried out in relation to society, family, religion and the different environments in which he must act. And we know, also, that each experience leads the experimenters to the conviction that man can not live isolated, without society, without family, without religion, because he is, after all, leading man to rejoin, that is, to re-link in the spiritual unity, within a continuity.

"If electronic washing were adopted as usual, we would already have the end of human freedom. And it happens to ask: How far can man be free and to what extent science and to what extent does science have the right or the freedom to dispossess the human being of it? We already know that there are many people who prefer death to the loss of freedom. But we are reaching a time when man, bored with it, wants to take away that privilege of thinking freely.

"It has corresponded to the current man to live in the era of the greatest discoveries, and not yet satisfied, pretend to reach the 'heaven' and the 'universe' as it happened to the men who became confused at Babel.

"To what extent also in the Western Hemisphere has the man-machine of consumption been created, which buys, consumes and re-buys motivated by the forces coming from advertising, which at the same time wash, contaminate, alienate and / or motivate the being in one direction or another? So it would be another way of brainwashing, of directing and driving man by turning him into a machine. What consequences does this have and has it had? Thinking in a single sense, we would have a defense, a resistance with active or passive violence, before that phenomenon; this is how we find the 'antis', which exist in different directions. From all this we can conclude how in one way or another human freedom feels affected and science itself can and is used to intervene in decisions. It would be up to you if, how healthy, orderly motivations, which seek good and balance, are what move scientists in their science and technology to integrate man into their internal and external freedom.

"Today, the coupling of the sciences is a reality; we no longer work unilaterally, but as a team, which has led us and leads us to progress, to the advancement and to the conquest of what has not been found. But this same can confuse us, because looking for the solution of everything we come to nothing. In the same way, if we face the limitations, the renunciation of omnipotence and omnisapience, in such a way we could find a more real and more kind path for future generations. In those renunciations and limitations, it would be possible to find a balance between rights and duties, the result of which would give us a measurement point of responsible and conscious freedom ".

If before I referred to the so-called "electronic washing" and "man-machine", today we can think that there are mental washes caused by the flood of propaganda and by the idealization of science and technology; this is why we observe the tendency for children to use calculators and computers indiscriminately, even more, it is sometimes thought that the child must collect or accumulate the most information not always for creativity but rather to show his sapience; this is how we find the famous programs on television that show off knowledge and praise and reward those who know about a subject such as encyclopedias; fortunately educators have not fallensuch failure and this is why it is more noticeable the tendency for the child to learn to think, how to understand and how to use their knowledge in order to create.

It is men who can create machines and not these to the human being, but it is possible that the moment comes when man allows himself to be commanded by the response of the logic programmed in the electronic machine; in such a way many subjects or the same mass dominated by electronics will be seen; perhaps we are already observing it through television, machine or apparatus, which recreates, in the sense of fun or distraction, but which automates thought or, better, cancels it by not allowing the subject to actually learn and think.

Other problems that arise are that the subject can become ankylosed or underdeveloped intuition, being lazy before the obligation to calculate and think. The computer and computer technicians must plan and imagine what the changes, the methods, the instruments that should be applied to the aforementioned transformations that arise from the use of computers will be. It is important, I believe, that before forming men-machines, we have to train more and better thinking men and for that we must teach how to think. Currently we are faced with the disproportionality, on the one hand, of the technological advances in information technology, communication and computers, and on the other hand with the natural evolution of the human being. We are facing a crisis of different points of view; one of them is that the subject now has to learn to adapt to that new system of life that the new technology is imposing; therefore, technicians will also have to think about how media and systems should be created to teach the subject in this new adaptation and thus face the world of tomorrow with prevention. Currently even the fantasies of the prophecies, including those of Nostradamus, have been taken to the examination of the computer apparently creating a mathematical possibility to the fantasies of the sixteenth century.

It is possible that new technologies will help us in this new adaptation that has made reference, which will survive the coldness of the machine in this convulsed world, where what is most desired is to have more, regardless of being and existing transcendent. The race of position and physical well-being has been created in a competition of who can more physically, intellectually, technologically and scientifically, to repeat, to "have" more, as if in that having there is a better being. Perhaps the machines themselves help the man to a new encounter with himself, with a participation of the "other" in a "we", stripped of envy, jealousy, rivalry and fratricidal selfishness, in order to learn from the world that surrounds him, from himself and of others, knowing and thinking.

Computing is therefore leading to different fields of knowledge; In pedagogy, the "computer unit" -computer-screen-machine-keyboard-signals-discs, aided by audio, can be used in the teaching-learning process, applying them, for example, in the teaching of the language, the grammar, with images and words, with a methodologically programmed order, in order to form and grammatically integrate the words, which are chosen with their specific meaning and ideation, to form the discourse and the concept.

The teaching of a language, in such a way, becomes shorter, simpler, more synthetic. In the social area, it is possible to program by synthesizing concepts and stimulating the subject to complete the idea. The same applies to geography in its descriptive, economic, functional and quantitative aspects; in the same way it is feasible to teach the formulas andchemical and physical structures in their theoretical aspect, without leaving aside the practical aspect, so important in teaching. Perhaps it is mathematics that can be taught the most by computers, programming the numbers, symbols or signs in the image on the screen, and with it the concept of sets, of systems, making the child learn by playing. This is another means of teaching and learning using modern technology. Thus with computers it is possible to facilitate the child to learn to think not by sticking to the computer but by using it to form concepts, abstractions, concretizations, to finally carry out analysis and synthesis that take him to formal knowledge and to the dialectic scientist.

The general education must use the computers, and the same instruction of the handling of the same ones is indispensable to give it today to the young student, to which also it is due to teach to him to investigate using the computers for with this also to arrive at the creativity. The important thing now is to create pedagogical programs that are aided by computer systems, adapting them to current and future life.

It is possible that computers can also help us in the field of physical and mental health to diagnose, know the disorder and thus also be able to find more quickly and easily the right solutions or remedies, with a minimum of error. In the same way, it will be possible to find faster, more synthetic and concrete learning methods that can better develop the capacities of thought and creativity. However, the doctor, the teacher, the scientist, the creator, the artist or simply man can not be replaced. Man is always required to help man with his conceptual functions. The machine may have replaced the functions that lead to memorization without error, but it can not replace the conceptual functions.

This is why it is necessary to be thinking about how to create updated or programmed pedagogical methodologies for future children.
With the above I do not mean that everything can be resolved by computers, quite the opposite; Moreover, not everyone will have the skills to manage them, but everyone should be given the opportunity to confront this technology.

It is well known how the human being is being created or stimulated the omnipotence of the calculation, of the memorization of data, of the meeting of already given solutions, of control of the image, of the facilitation of knowing information with devices that have and are handled with one hand, and all in a fraction of seconds, at the time we want. In the future, perhaps very close to each house, and even each subject, will have a computer or a calculator to program their relationship life. For all the above it is clear that the human being requires not only new adaptations and encounters of sociological, pedagogical methodologies, but changes of attitudes of mentality in free form, being open to the immensity of possibilities that lead us to improve the organization of ideas, of knowledge, of work, of criteria and concepts, making better analysis and synthesis, being able to abstract and specify better in order to be able to create.

If previously memorizing machines had been created in the human being, today we have to create thinking men and not machine machines, because we would not find in the same situation when the object was supposed to react according to certain pre-established patterns and normative, and therefore the subject was not allowed to think, act, be and exist. The danger is that the same machine will be reached with the same machine.

There are already design projects of a "thinking apparatus", that is, of how the mind is supposed to come to think, according to the known functions; in this operation we can find a variety of functions that are feasible to be brought to the machines, to the electronic brains; but some functions can not be programmed in any system device, because they belong, until now, to man; thus, for example, among them are the functions of symbolization, of formation of dream thinking, of preconception and conception proper. Repeating or copying the human mental apparatus would be equivalent to making another man with all his nature, in his image and likeness, or with the same identity as a man.

From all this it is clear again how necessary it is to take into account that both technology and science must be at the service of man and not at the service of them, nor become slaves of them, deifying them. The more we investigate, in any field we encounter the limits of knowledge and man in his knowledge and learning.


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